WW2010
University of Illinois

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Online Guides
 
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Meteorology
 
  introduction
 
  air masses, fronts
 
  clouds, precipitation
 
  el nino
 
  forces, winds
 
> hurricanes
 
  hydrologic cycle
 
  light, optics
 
  midlatitude cyclones
 
  severe storms
 
  weather forecasting

Hurricanes
 
  introduction
 
  growth processes
 
  development stages
 
  movement
 
  public awareness
 
  public action
 
> damage
 
  names
 
  global activity
 
  el nino

Damage
 
  damage
 
> winds
 
  storm surge
 
  rain
 
  tornadoes
 
  rip tides

User Interface
 
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Strong Winds
determines the intensity of a hurricane

Strong winds are the most common means of destruction associated with hurricanes. Their sometimes continuous barrage can uproot trees, knock over buildings and homes, fling potentially deadly debris around, sink or ground boats, and flip cars.

[Embedded Object: Strong Winds Movie (4.55MB)]

The intensity of a tropical cyclone is measured by the highest sustained wind speed found within it. Once it becomes a hurricane, the relative strength of that hurricane is also measured on a scale based on its greatest wind speed. This scale is named the Saffir-Simpson scale for the men who invented it. The scale is listed below.

Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Damage-Potential Scale
Scale Number

Category
Central Pressure

mb
inches
Wind Speeds

mi/hr
knots
Storm Surge

feet
meters
Observed
Damage
1 >=980

>=28.94

74-95

64-82

4-5

~1.5

some damage to trees, shrubbery, and unanchored mobile homes
2 965-979

28.50-28.91

96-110

83-95

6-8

~2.0-2.5

major damage to mobile homes; damage buildings' roofs, and blow trees down
3 945-964

27.91-28.47

111-130

96-113

9-12

~2.5-4.0

destroy mobile homes; blow down large trees; damage small buildings
4 920-944

27.17-27.88

131-155

114-135

13-18

~4.0-5.5

completely destroy mobile homes; lower floors of structures near shore are susceptible to flooding
5 <"920"

<"27.17"

>"155"

>"135"

>"18"

>"5.5"

extensive damage to homes and industrial buildings; blow away small buildings; lower floors of structures within 500 meters of shore and less than 4.5 m (15 ft) above sea level are damaged

The Saffir-Simpson scale categorizes hurricanes on a scale from 1 to 5. Category 1 hurricanes are the weakest, and 5's the most intense. Hurricanes strong enough to be considered intense start at category 3 or with sustained winds exceeding 96 knots (111 mph). For reference, there have only been three category 5 hurricanes that made landfall on the mainland U.S. (Florida Keys 1935, Camille 1969, and Andrew 1992).

Not only can the winds be dangerous, but the fact that they continually blow upon the water creates another problem - storm surge and high waves. Storm surge and high waves can contribute to water rising as high as 30 feet -- easily enough to devastate homes and businesses along the shore as well as kill those within them. Coastal towns adjacent to large bays or areas with shallow water are especially susceptible to damage by the storm surge.



damage
Terms for using data resources. CD-ROM available.
Credits and Acknowledgments for WW2010.
Department of Atmospheric Sciences (DAS) at
the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

storm surge