NOTE: We've guessed that
you're not using a client that supports colored tables and have tried
to compensate. Low graphics mode looks much better on clients that
do... we recommend switching to Netscape 3.0 or Microsoft Internet
using the lemon technique
A few storms take the intensification process further, to the
stage. The updraft
becomes virtually erect and the storm top shifts off of the
low-level echo gradient to the area above the developing pendent echo. Radar
reflectivities continue to increase in both the low level and extensive
mid-level overhang echoes. As mentioned earlier, evidence suggests that storm
circulation associated with the mesocyclone holds the
gust front in check.
Therefore, rather than racing ahead of the updraft to eventually choke it off,
the gust front
remains quasi-stationary relative to the moving storm and aids in
continued lifting of warm air into the updraft.
[Image: lemon technique analysis of supercell (55K)]
A bounded WER (BWER) develops where the intense
updraft is surrounded by
mid-level overhang. When a hook or pendant echo is not visible on radar, a
BWER often is, provided that the radar operator searches for it with the
suggested vertical tilt sequence rather than with the
in this illustration does have a pendant echo, with the top of
the rotating updraft above the WER and just east of the pendant. The radar
operator must be aware that spotters are likely to see a well-developed
cloud, often with vigorous rotation, beneath the radar BWER.
Why is the supercell
updraft so intense? Obviously, instability is one factor.
Another contributor is rotation. Research has shown that the
in the rotating updraft
initially are in the mid-levels (20,000 feet or so) in
a supercell, causing an acceleration of the updraft, because of the upward
oriented pressure gradient.
This can result in a 50 percent increase in
[Image: panhandle supercell (55K)]
The Panhandle storm has become virtually erect, with an extremely crisp
Cb top and anvil edge.
We are still looking north, from about 30 miles,